Skip to Content
author's profile photo Former Member
Former Member

performance

hi,

How would u go about improving the performance of a Program, which selects data from MSEG & MKPF?

regards,

kb

Add a comment
10|10000 characters needed characters exceeded

Assigned Tags

Related questions

7 Answers

  • author's profile photo Former Member
    Former Member
    Posted on Feb 08, 2008 at 07:58 AM

    HI

    points to improve performance in the report

    Ways of Performance Tuning

    1. Selection Criteria

    2. Select Statements

    • Select Queries

    • SQL Interface

    • Aggregate Functions

    • For all Entries

    Select Over more than one internal table

    Selection Criteria

    1. Restrict the data to the selection criteria itself, rather than filtering it out using the ABAP code using CHECK statement.

    2. Select with selection list.

    SELECT * FROM SBOOK INTO SBOOK_WA.

    CHECK: SBOOK_WA-CARRID = 'LH' AND

    SBOOK_WA-CONNID = '0400'.

    ENDSELECT.

    The above code can be much more optimized by the code written below which avoids CHECK, selects with selection list

    SELECT CARRID CONNID FLDATE BOOKID FROM SBOOK INTO TABLE T_SBOOK

    WHERE SBOOK_WA-CARRID = 'LH' AND

    SBOOK_WA-CONNID = '0400'.

    Select Statements Select Queries

    1. Avoid nested selects

    SELECT * FROM EKKO INTO EKKO_WA.

    SELECT * FROM EKAN INTO EKAN_WA

    WHERE EBELN = EKKO_WA-EBELN.

    ENDSELECT.

    ENDSELECT.

    The above code can be much more optimized by the code written below.

    SELECT P~F1 P~F2 F~F3 F~F4 INTO TABLE ITAB

    FROM EKKO AS P INNER JOIN EKAN AS F

    ON P~EBELN = F~EBELN.

    Note: A simple SELECT loop is a single database access whose result is passed to the ABAP program line by line. Nested SELECT loops mean that the number of accesses in the inner loop is multiplied by the number of accesses in the outer loop. One should therefore use nested SELECT loops only if the selection in the outer loop contains very few lines or the outer loop is a SELECT SINGLE statement.

    2. Select all the records in a single shot using into table clause of select statement rather than to use Append statements.

    SELECT * FROM SBOOK INTO SBOOK_WA.

    CHECK: SBOOK_WA-CARRID = 'LH' AND

    SBOOK_WA-CONNID = '0400'.

    ENDSELECT.

    The above code can be much more optimized by the code written below which avoids CHECK, selects with selection list and puts the data in one shot using into table

    SELECT CARRID CONNID FLDATE BOOKID FROM SBOOK INTO TABLE T_SBOOK

    WHERE SBOOK_WA-CARRID = 'LH' AND

    SBOOK_WA-CONNID = '0400'.

    3. When a base table has multiple indices, the where clause should be in the order of the index, either a primary or a secondary index.

    To choose an index, the optimizer checks the field names specified in the where clause and then uses an index that has the same order of the fields. In certain scenarios, it is advisable to check whether a new index can speed up the performance of a program. This will come handy in programs that access data from the finance tables.

    4. For testing existence, use Select.. Up to 1 rows statement instead of a Select-Endselect-loop with an Exit.

    SELECT * FROM SBOOK INTO SBOOK_WA

    UP TO 1 ROWS

    WHERE CARRID = 'LH'.

    ENDSELECT.

    The above code is more optimized as compared to the code mentioned below for testing existence of a record.

    SELECT * FROM SBOOK INTO SBOOK_WA

    WHERE CARRID = 'LH'.

    EXIT.

    ENDSELECT.

    5. Use Select Single if all primary key fields are supplied in the Where condition .

    If all primary key fields are supplied in the Where conditions you can even use Select Single.

    Select Single requires one communication with the database system, whereas Select-Endselect needs two.

    Select Statements SQL Interface

    1. Use column updates instead of single-row updates

    to update your database tables.

    SELECT * FROM SFLIGHT INTO SFLIGHT_WA.

    SFLIGHT_WA-SEATSOCC =

    SFLIGHT_WA-SEATSOCC - 1.

    UPDATE SFLIGHT FROM SFLIGHT_WA.

    ENDSELECT.

    The above mentioned code can be more optimized by using the following code

    UPDATE SFLIGHT

    SET SEATSOCC = SEATSOCC - 1.

    2. For all frequently used Select statements, try to use an index.

    SELECT * FROM SBOOK CLIENT SPECIFIED INTO SBOOK_WA

    WHERE CARRID = 'LH'

    AND CONNID = '0400'.

    ENDSELECT.

    The above mentioned code can be more optimized by using the following code

    SELECT * FROM SBOOK CLIENT SPECIFIED INTO SBOOK_WA

    WHERE MANDT IN ( SELECT MANDT FROM T000 )

    AND CARRID = 'LH'

    AND CONNID = '0400'.

    ENDSELECT.

    3. Using buffered tables improves the performance considerably.

    Bypassing the buffer increases the network considerably

    SELECT SINGLE * FROM T100 INTO T100_WA

    BYPASSING BUFFER

    WHERE SPRSL = 'D'

    AND ARBGB = '00'

    AND MSGNR = '999'.

    The above mentioned code can be more optimized by using the following code

    SELECT SINGLE * FROM T100 INTO T100_WA

    WHERE SPRSL = 'D'

    AND ARBGB = '00'

    AND MSGNR = '999'.

    Select Statements Aggregate Functions

    • If you want to find the maximum, minimum, sum and average value or the count of a database column, use a select list with aggregate functions instead of computing the aggregates yourself.

    Some of the Aggregate functions allowed in SAP are MAX, MIN, AVG, SUM, COUNT, COUNT( * )

    Consider the following extract.

    Maxno = 0.

    Select * from zflight where airln = ‘LF’ and cntry = ‘IN’.

    Check zflight-fligh > maxno.

    Maxno = zflight-fligh.

    Endselect.

    The above mentioned code can be much more optimized by using the following code.

    Select max( fligh ) from zflight into maxno where airln = ‘LF’ and cntry = ‘IN’.

    Select Statements For All Entries

    • The for all entries creates a where clause, where all the entries in the driver table are combined with OR. If the number of entries in the driver table is larger than rsdb/max_blocking_factor, several similar SQL statements are executed to limit the length of the WHERE clause.

    The plus

    • Large amount of data

    • Mixing processing and reading of data

    • Fast internal reprocessing of data

    • Fast

    The Minus

    • Difficult to program/understand

    • Memory could be critical (use FREE or PACKAGE size)

    Points to be must considered FOR ALL ENTRIES

    • Check that data is present in the driver table

    • Sorting the driver table

    • Removing duplicates from the driver table

    Consider the following piece of extract

    Loop at int_cntry.

    Select single * from zfligh into int_fligh

    where cntry = int_cntry-cntry.

    Append int_fligh.

    Endloop.

    The above mentioned can be more optimized by using the following code.

    Sort int_cntry by cntry.

    Delete adjacent duplicates from int_cntry.

    If NOT int_cntry[] is INITIAL.

    Select * from zfligh appending table int_fligh

    For all entries in int_cntry

    Where cntry = int_cntry-cntry.

    Endif.

    Select Statements Select Over more than one Internal table

    1. Its better to use a views instead of nested Select statements.

    SELECT * FROM DD01L INTO DD01L_WA

    WHERE DOMNAME LIKE 'CHAR%'

    AND AS4LOCAL = 'A'.

    SELECT SINGLE * FROM DD01T INTO DD01T_WA

    WHERE DOMNAME = DD01L_WA-DOMNAME

    AND AS4LOCAL = 'A'

    AND AS4VERS = DD01L_WA-AS4VERS

    AND DDLANGUAGE = SY-LANGU.

    ENDSELECT.

    The above code can be more optimized by extracting all the data from view DD01V_WA

    SELECT * FROM DD01V INTO DD01V_WA

    WHERE DOMNAME LIKE 'CHAR%'

    AND DDLANGUAGE = SY-LANGU.

    ENDSELECT

    2. To read data from several logically connected tables use a join instead of nested Select statements. Joins are preferred only if all the primary key are available in WHERE clause for the tables that are joined. If the primary keys are not provided in join the Joining of tables itself takes time.

    SELECT * FROM EKKO INTO EKKO_WA.

    SELECT * FROM EKAN INTO EKAN_WA

    WHERE EBELN = EKKO_WA-EBELN.

    ENDSELECT.

    ENDSELECT.

    The above code can be much more optimized by the code written below.

    SELECT P~F1 P~F2 F~F3 F~F4 INTO TABLE ITAB

    FROM EKKO AS P INNER JOIN EKAN AS F

    ON P~EBELN = F~EBELN.

    3. Instead of using nested Select loops it is often better to use subqueries.

    SELECT * FROM SPFLI

    INTO TABLE T_SPFLI

    WHERE CITYFROM = 'FRANKFURT'

    AND CITYTO = 'NEW YORK'.

    SELECT * FROM SFLIGHT AS F

    INTO SFLIGHT_WA

    FOR ALL ENTRIES IN T_SPFLI

    WHERE SEATSOCC < F~SEATSMAX

    AND CARRID = T_SPFLI-CARRID

    AND CONNID = T_SPFLI-CONNID

    AND FLDATE BETWEEN '19990101' AND '19990331'.

    ENDSELECT.

    The above mentioned code can be even more optimized by using subqueries instead of for all entries.

    SELECT * FROM SFLIGHT AS F INTO SFLIGHT_WA

    WHERE SEATSOCC < F~SEATSMAX

    AND EXISTS ( SELECT * FROM SPFLI

    WHERE CARRID = F~CARRID

    AND CONNID = F~CONNID

    AND CITYFROM = 'FRANKFURT'

    AND CITYTO = 'NEW YORK' )

    AND FLDATE BETWEEN '19990101' AND '19990331'.

    ENDSELECT.

    1. Table operations should be done using explicit work areas rather than via header lines.

    READ TABLE ITAB INTO WA WITH KEY K = 'X‘ BINARY SEARCH.

    IS MUCH FASTER THAN USING

    READ TABLE ITAB INTO WA WITH KEY K = 'X'.

    If TAB has n entries, linear search runs in O( n ) time, whereas binary search takes only O( log2( n ) ).

    2. Always try to use binary search instead of linear search. But don’t forget to sort your internal table before that.

    READ TABLE ITAB INTO WA WITH KEY K = 'X'. IS FASTER THAN USING

    READ TABLE ITAB INTO WA WITH KEY (NAME) = 'X'.

    3. A dynamic key access is slower than a static one, since the key specification must be evaluated at runtime.

    4. A binary search using secondary index takes considerably less time.

    5. LOOP ... WHERE is faster than LOOP/CHECK because LOOP ... WHERE evaluates the specified condition internally.

    LOOP AT ITAB INTO WA WHERE K = 'X'.

    " ...

    ENDLOOP.

    The above code is much faster than using

    LOOP AT ITAB INTO WA.

    CHECK WA-K = 'X'.

    " ...

    ENDLOOP.

    6. Modifying selected components using “ MODIFY itab …TRANSPORTING f1 f2.. “ accelerates the task of updating a line of an internal table.

    WA-DATE = SY-DATUM.

    MODIFY ITAB FROM WA INDEX 1 TRANSPORTING DATE.

    The above code is more optimized as compared to

    WA-DATE = SY-DATUM.

    MODIFY ITAB FROM WA INDEX 1.

    7. Accessing the table entries directly in a "LOOP ... ASSIGNING ..." accelerates the task of updating a set of lines of an internal table considerably

    Modifying selected components only makes the program faster as compared to Modifying all lines completely.

    e.g,

    LOOP AT ITAB ASSIGNING <WA>.

    I = SY-TABIX MOD 2.

    IF I = 0.

    <WA>-FLAG = 'X'.

    ENDIF.

    ENDLOOP.

    The above code works faster as compared to

    LOOP AT ITAB INTO WA.

    I = SY-TABIX MOD 2.

    IF I = 0.

    WA-FLAG = 'X'.

    MODIFY ITAB FROM WA.

    ENDIF.

    ENDLOOP.

    8. If collect semantics is required, it is always better to use to COLLECT rather than READ BINARY and then ADD.

    LOOP AT ITAB1 INTO WA1.

    READ TABLE ITAB2 INTO WA2 WITH KEY K = WA1-K BINARY SEARCH.

    IF SY-SUBRC = 0.

    ADD: WA1-VAL1 TO WA2-VAL1,

    WA1-VAL2 TO WA2-VAL2.

    MODIFY ITAB2 FROM WA2 INDEX SY-TABIX TRANSPORTING VAL1 VAL2.

    ELSE.

    INSERT WA1 INTO ITAB2 INDEX SY-TABIX.

    ENDIF.

    ENDLOOP.

    The above code uses BINARY SEARCH for collect semantics. READ BINARY runs in O( log2(n) ) time. The above piece of code can be more optimized by

    LOOP AT ITAB1 INTO WA.

    COLLECT WA INTO ITAB2.

    ENDLOOP.

    SORT ITAB2 BY K.

    COLLECT, however, uses a hash algorithm and is therefore independent

    of the number of entries (i.e. O(1)) .

    9. "APPEND LINES OF itab1 TO itab2" accelerates the task of appending a table to another table considerably as compared to “ LOOP-APPEND-ENDLOOP.”

    APPEND LINES OF ITAB1 TO ITAB2.

    This is more optimized as compared to

    LOOP AT ITAB1 INTO WA.

    APPEND WA TO ITAB2.

    ENDLOOP.

    10. “DELETE ADJACENT DUPLICATES“ accelerates the task of deleting duplicate entries considerably as compared to “ READ-LOOP-DELETE-ENDLOOP”.

    DELETE ADJACENT DUPLICATES FROM ITAB COMPARING K.

    This is much more optimized as compared to

    READ TABLE ITAB INDEX 1 INTO PREV_LINE.

    LOOP AT ITAB FROM 2 INTO WA.

    IF WA = PREV_LINE.

    DELETE ITAB.

    ELSE.

    PREV_LINE = WA.

    ENDIF.

    ENDLOOP.

    11. "DELETE itab FROM ... TO ..." accelerates the task of deleting a sequence of lines considerably as compared to “ DO -DELETE-ENDDO”.

    DELETE ITAB FROM 450 TO 550.

    This is much more optimized as compared to

    DO 101 TIMES.

    DELETE ITAB INDEX 450.

    ENDDO.

    12. Copying internal tables by using “ITAB2[ ] = ITAB1[ ]” as compared to “LOOP-APPEND-ENDLOOP”.

    ITAB2] = ITAB1[.

    This is much more optimized as compared to

    REFRESH ITAB2.

    LOOP AT ITAB1 INTO WA.

    APPEND WA TO ITAB2.

    ENDLOOP.

    13. Specify the sort key as restrictively as possible to run the program faster.

    “SORT ITAB BY K.” makes the program runs faster as compared to “SORT ITAB.”

    Internal Tables contd…

    Hashed and Sorted tables

    1. For single read access hashed tables are more optimized as compared to sorted tables.

    2. For partial sequential access sorted tables are more optimized as compared to hashed tables

    Hashed And Sorted Tables

    Point # 1

    Consider the following example where HTAB is a hashed table and STAB is a sorted table

    DO 250 TIMES.

    N = 4 * SY-INDEX.

    READ TABLE HTAB INTO WA WITH TABLE KEY K = N.

    IF SY-SUBRC = 0.

    " ...

    ENDIF.

    ENDDO.

    This runs faster for single read access as compared to the following same code for sorted table

    DO 250 TIMES.

    N = 4 * SY-INDEX.

    READ TABLE STAB INTO WA WITH TABLE KEY K = N.

    IF SY-SUBRC = 0.

    " ...

    ENDIF.

    ENDDO.

    Point # 2

    Similarly for Partial Sequential access the STAB runs faster as compared to HTAB

    LOOP AT STAB INTO WA WHERE K = SUBKEY.

    " ...

    ENDLOOP.

    This runs faster as compared to

    LOOP AT HTAB INTO WA WHERE K = SUBKEY.

    " ...

    ENDLOOP.

    Reward Points if found helpfull..

    Cheers,

    Chandra Sekhar.

    Add a comment
    10|10000 characters needed characters exceeded

  • author's profile photo Former Member
    Former Member
    Posted on Feb 08, 2008 at 10:44 AM

    to improve the performace while fetching data from MSEG you have to give the complete composite key for this table which includes ZEILE along with MBLNR MJAHR that are the key-fields for MKPF table. by this only you will get unique and correct record according to your selection criteria

    rest u can apply above methods to combine them in single internal table

    avoid nested loops & nested selects

    Add a comment
    10|10000 characters needed characters exceeded

  • author's profile photo Former Member
    Former Member
    Posted on Feb 08, 2008 at 10:46 AM

    Hi

    Hope it will help you.

    Reward if help.

    1) Dont use nested select statements

    2) If possible use for all entries in addition

    3) In the where addition make sure you give all the primary key

    4) Use Index for the selection criteria.

    5) You can also use inner joins

    6) You can try to put the data from the first select statement into an Itab and then in order to select the data from the second table use for all entries in.

    7) Use the runtime analysis SE30 and SQL Trace (ST05) to identify the performance and also to identify where the load is heavy, so that you can change the code accordingly

    https://www.sdn.sap.com/irj/servlet/prt/portal/prtroot/docs/library/uuid/5d0db4c9-0e01-0010-b68f-9b1408d5f234

    ABAP performance depends upon various factors and in devicded in three parts:

    1. Database

    2. ABAP

    3. System

    Run Any program using SE30 (performance analys) to improve performance refer to tips and trics section of SE30, Always remember that ABAP perfirmance is improved when there is least load on Database.

    u can get an interactive grap in SE30 regarding this with a file.

    also if u find runtime of parts of codes then use :

    Switch on RTA Dynamically within ABAP Code

    *To turn runtim analysis on within ABAP code insert the following code

    SET RUN TIME ANALYZER ON.

    *To turn runtim analysis off within ABAP code insert the following code

    SET RUN TIME ANALYZER OFF.

    Always check the driver internal tables is not empty, while using FOR ALL ENTRIES

    Avoid for all entries in JOINS

    Try to avoid joins and use FOR ALL ENTRIES.

    Try to restrict the joins to 1 level only ie only for tables

    Avoid using Select *.

    Avoid having multiple Selects from the same table in the same object.

    Try to minimize the number of variables to save memory.

    The sequence of fields in 'where clause' must be as per primary/secondary index ( if any)

    Avoid creation of index as far as possible

    Avoid operators like <>, > , < & like % in where clause conditions

    Avoid select/select single statements in loops.

    Try to use 'binary search' in READ internal table. Ensure table is sorted before using BINARY SEARCH.

    Avoid using aggregate functions (SUM, MAX etc) in selects ( GROUP BY , HAVING,)

    Avoid using ORDER BY in selects

    Avoid Nested Selects

    Avoid Nested Loops of Internal Tables

    Try to use FIELD SYMBOLS.

    Try to avoid into Corresponding Fields of

    Avoid using Select Distinct, Use DELETE ADJACENT

    Check the following Links

    performance-tuning-of-program

    http://www.sapgenie.com/abap/performance.htm

    http://www.thespot4sap.com/Articles/SAPABAPPerformanceTuning_PerformanceAnalysisTools.asp

    check the below link

    http://www.sap-img.com/abap/performance-tuning-for-data-selection-statement.htm

    See the following link if it's any help:

    http://www.thespot4sap.com/Articles/SAPABAPPerformanceTuning_PerformanceAnalysisTools.asp

    Check also http://service.sap.com/performance

    and

    books like

    http://www.sap-press.com/product.cfm?account=∏uct=H951

    http://www.sap-press.com/product.cfm?account=∏uct=H973

    http://www.sap-img.com/abap/more-than-100-abap-interview-faqs.htm

    http://www.thespot4sap.com/Articles/SAPABAPPerformanceTuning_PerformanceAnalysisTools.asp

    Performance tuning for Data Selection Statement

    http://www.sap-img.com/abap/performance-tuning-for-data-selection-statement.htm

    Debugger

    http://help.sap.com/saphelp_47x200/helpdata/en/c6/617ca9e68c11d2b2ab080009b43351/content.htm

    http://www.cba.nau.edu/haney-j/CIS497/Assignments/Debugging.doc

    http://help.sap.com/saphelp_erp2005/helpdata/en/b3/d322540c3beb4ba53795784eebb680/frameset.htm

    Run Time Analyser

    http://help.sap.com/saphelp_47x200/helpdata/en/c6/617cafe68c11d2b2ab080009b43351/content.htm

    SQL trace

    http://help.sap.com/saphelp_47x200/helpdata/en/d1/801f7c454211d189710000e8322d00/content.htm

    CATT - Computer Aided Testing Too

    http://help.sap.com/saphelp_47x200/helpdata/en/b3/410b37233f7c6fe10000009b38f936/frameset.htm

    Test Workbench

    http://help.sap.com/saphelp_47x200/helpdata/en/a8/157235d0fa8742e10000009b38f889/frameset.htm

    Coverage Analyser

    http://help.sap.com/saphelp_47x200/helpdata/en/c7/af9a79061a11d4b3d4080009b43351/content.htm

    Runtime Monitor

    http://help.sap.com/saphelp_47x200/helpdata/en/b5/fa121cc15911d5993d00508b6b8b11/content.htm

    Memory Inspector

    http://help.sap.com/saphelp_47x200/helpdata/en/a2/e5fc84cc87964cb2c29f584152d74e/content.htm

    ECATT - Extended Computer Aided testing tool.

    http://help.sap.com/saphelp_47x200/helpdata/en/20/e81c3b84e65e7be10000000a11402f/frameset.htm

    Just refer to these links...

    performance

    Performance Guide

    performance issues...

    Performance Tuning

    Performance issues

    performance tuning

    performance tuning

    You can go to the transaction SE30 to have the runtime analysis of your program.Also try the transaction SCI , which is SAP Code Inspector.

    1 Always check the driver internal tables is not empty, while using FOR ALL ENTRIES

    2 Avoid for all entries in JOINS

    3 Try to avoid joins and use FOR ALL ENTRIES.

    4 Try to restrict the joins to 1 level only ie only for 2 tables

    5 Avoid using Select *.

    6 Avoid having multiple Selects from the same table in the same object.

    7 Try to minimize the number of variables to save memory.

    8 The sequence of fields in 'where clause' must be as per primary/secondary index ( if any)

    9 Avoid creation of index as far as possible

    10 Avoid operators like <>, > , < & like % in where clause conditions

    11 Avoid select/select single statements in loops.

    12 Try to use 'binary search' in READ internal table. Ensure table is sorted before using BINARY SEARCH.

    13 Avoid using aggregate functions (SUM, MAX etc) in selects ( GROUP BY , HAVING,)

    14 Avoid using ORDER BY in selects

    15 Avoid Nested Selects

    16 Avoid Nested Loops of Internal Tables

    17 Try to use FIELD SYMBOLS.

    18 Try to avoid into Corresponding Fields of

    19 Avoid using Select Distinct, Use DELETE ADJACENT.

    Add a comment
    10|10000 characters needed characters exceeded

  • author's profile photo Former Member
    Former Member
    Posted on Feb 08, 2008 at 10:47 AM

    hi

    good

    check this points

    1--> Check wheather you have selected using the key field or not

    2--> Check wheather you have used corresponding fields of tbale statement or not

    3--> Check the field that you r selecting from this table are in a proper format or not.

    thanks

    mrutyun^

    Add a comment
    10|10000 characters needed characters exceeded

  • author's profile photo Former Member
    Former Member
    Posted on Feb 08, 2008 at 10:50 AM

    Following link will really help.

    [table-mseg-has-two-indexes-containing-a-single-key;

    REWARD POINTS IF USEFUL

    Add a comment
    10|10000 characters needed characters exceeded

  • author's profile photo Former Member
    Former Member
    Posted on Feb 08, 2008 at 10:51 AM

    Hi,

    The speed of execution and thus the performance will definelly improve if you specify only the fields which you want instead of selecting the whole row.

    Ex If you want only bwart field from mseg.

    Select bwart from mseg where -


    Now in the where clause specify the key fields to improve the perfomance.

    The same goes out for anyother table as well….

    Reward if helpful.

    Add a comment
    10|10000 characters needed characters exceeded

    • Former Member

      The most important thing is you always use a database index for the select

      The table key is the better index, but If you want to use some fields that wasn't at table key, you can create a Z index from this table. Go to SE11, Indexes button

      Put all of field that you will use on the where in a index.

      The order of the fields on a index must be from the most distinct field to the least distinct

      Don't forget of mandt field

      Create your select and test it in ST05

  • author's profile photo Former Member
    Former Member
    Posted on Jan 14, 2009 at 10:10 PM

    thanks

    Add a comment
    10|10000 characters needed characters exceeded

Before answering

You should only submit an answer when you are proposing a solution to the poster's problem. If you want the poster to clarify the question or provide more information, please leave a comment instead, requesting additional details. When answering, please include specifics, such as step-by-step instructions, context for the solution, and links to useful resources. Also, please make sure that you answer complies with our Rules of Engagement.
You must be Logged in to submit an answer.

Up to 10 attachments (including images) can be used with a maximum of 1.0 MB each and 10.5 MB total.