Normally We will monitor the batch jobs through transaction code sm37 for job monitoring. In SM37 we will give a batch job name date and time as input. In the first step we will check the batch job for the reason failure or check the spool request for the batch job for failures an help in analyzing the error
I understand from the my experience is that the batch may fail due to below reasons.
1.,Data issues : ex: Invalid character in quantity (Meins) field >>>> We will correct the corresponding document with correct value or we will manually run or request the team to rerun the batch job by excluding the problematic documents from the batch job variant so that it may process other documents.
2.Configuration issues : Materials XXXX is not extended for Plant >>>> we will contact the material master team or business to correct the data or we will raise sub contract call with support team to correct he data. Once the data been corrected and will request the team to rerun the batch job.
3.Performance issues : Volume of the data being processed by the batch job ,network problems.>>>Normally these kind of issues we will encounter during the month end process as there will lot of accounting transactions or documents being posted business hence it may cause the batch job failure as there is enough memory to complete the program or select queries in the program will timeout because of volume of the records.
4.Network issues. : Temporary connectivity issues in other partner systems :Outage in other partner systems like APO or other system like GTS will cause the batch job failure as Batch job not in position to connect other system to get the inforamtion and proceed for further steps.Nornmally we will check RFC destination status by running a custom program weather connectivity between system are in progress or not. then intimate other partner system for the further actions, Once the partner system comes online then we will intimate the team to restart or manually submit batch job.
Some times we will create a manual job by transaction code SM36.